新加坡空气展亭 AirMesh / AIRLAB

in 艺术小品 on 2020年10月25日


AIRLAB:AirMesh是世界上第一個由不銹鋼3D打印組件製成的建築結構,它突破了建築在創新和技術上的輕盈極限,也展示出了新加坡科技大學AirLab最先進的數字化設計和製造技術。

AIRLAB:AirMesh pushes the limits of lightness in Architectural innovation and Building Technologies, becoming the world first architectural structure made of 3D printed components in stainless steel, demonstrating state-of-the-art digital design and manufacturing technologies developed by AirLab at Singapore University of Technology and Design.

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB

該超輕展館位於新加坡海灣花園附近,既是一個聚集空間,也是一個輕雕塑藝術。它是新加坡建築管理局(BCA)及市建局批准的首個遵循歐洲法規而設計的3D打印的臨時使用結構,將在花園中一直開放至2020年。

The ultra-lightweight pavilion, located at Gardens by the Bay, is both a gathering space and a light sculpture. The state-of-the-art design follows Eurocode regulations, and is the first 3D Printed structure that has been approved by the Singapore Building Construction Authority (BCA) for temporary occupation in Singapore. The pavilion, also approved by URA (Urban Redevelopment Authority) will still be available to visit in 2020.

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong

為了減少建設過程中材料的使用,並充分實現建築設計中的絕對自由形式,AirLab經過四年多的研究,開發了一種全新的建設系統:在不銹鋼材料中加入3D打印技術,製造極其複雜的結構優化組件,實現製造過程中的材料零浪費;利用定制的連接系統,將這些組件與標準鋼管型材相結合,再使用各種尺寸的六角鍵將其組裝時間縮短到幾秒鐘。

With the vision of reducing the usage of material in construction, and to fully enable absolute free-form in Architectural design, an entirely new constructive system by AirLab has been developed over more than four years of research. Using Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) in Stainless Steel, extremely complex structurally optimised components can be fabricated achieving zero wastage of material in the fabrication process; those components are combined with standard steel tubular profiles thanks to a bespoke connection system which reduces the assembly time to a few seconds using hex keys of different size.

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong

若你站在不同角度,會看到不同形狀的AirMesh:它由四個面向周圍景觀亮點(蜻蜓橋、銀色花園、Marina海灣沙灘和展館入口)的取景框架構成,四個矩形框架組合在一起構成了展館空間,其多面式的漸變顏色照明也使它看起來好似一個傳統的中國燈籠。

The pragmatic form of AirMesh is defined by the views' directions. The volume is defined by four vectors oriented towards highlights in the surrounding landscape: the dragonfly bridge, the silver garden, the Marina Bay Sands, and the pavilion entrance. The space is generated by four rectangular view frames, and its faceted form reinterprets a traditional Chinese lantern, lighting up in subtile color gradients.

© AIRLAB
© Fabian Ong
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© Fabian Ong

該展館由216根不同長度和截面的鋼筋和54個獨特的、由鋼和青銅合金製成連接節點組成,為了創建最有效的結構設計,設計團隊使用自定義參數化工具,優化了框架的拓撲結構、桿的截面和節點的幾何形狀,因此,該結構在原本機械性的地方呈現出了最佳的結構和材料分佈。

The structure was designed using a custom parametric tool that optimizes the topology of the frame, the section of the bars and the geometry of the node with the objective of creating the most efficient structural design. As a result, the structure presents the optimal configuration and distribution of material where mechanically needed. The pavilion consists of 216 bars of different lengths and sections, and 54 unique nodal joints printed in a steel and bronze alloy.

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB

基於以上元件連接的重大技術創新應用,能夠3D打印節點內部的螺紋,便於用隱藏在桿內的螺栓進行裝配,組裝整個展館只需要不同直徑的六角鍵,該結構的組裝僅用五個人花了兩天時間完成,其小於1毫米的系統允許公差,以及各組件的完美配合,使得該不銹鋼結構的建造速度和性能都創下了一個歷史新高。

The assembly of the structure took only two days by five people, as a result of big technological innovation applied to the connection of the elements, being able to 3D print the threads inside the nodes to facilitate the assemblage with bolts concealed in the bars. Only hex keys of different diameter were needed to assemble the entire pavilion. The system allows for tolerances of less than a milli metre and perfect fit of components, taking construction in stainless-steel to a next level of rapidity and performance.

© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong

雖然展館結構外觀精緻,卻有大於其自身重量(700公斤)16倍的承重能力——超過11噸。

The structure has a weight of 700 kg, and despite its delicate and fine appearance, is able to withstand loads 16 times its weight – more than 11 tones.

© Fabian Ong

通常,這樣的一個空間框架系統都由一種規則模式重複組成,這主要是因為人們很難用有限的幾個標準節點來解析複雜的幾何圖形,但現在的3D打印不需要使用標準零件和重複圖案導致經濟效益降低,所以為了這種框架構築的設計有更大的自由設計空間,我們使用了新的工具和創新技術來建造Airmesh。

Typically, current space frames systems consists of a repetition of a regular pattern, primarily due to the impossibility of resolving complex geometries with a limited number of standard nodes. As 3D-printing eliminates the incentive of using standard parts, the economic benefits of using a repetitive pattern is reduced. To design space frames with this greater design freedom, new tools, technology and innovation were required to materialise Airmesh.

© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong

如果說數字化設計為無限的幾何自由、大規模定制和優化、裝飾性、多功能建築結構打開了創造力的大門,那麼,3D打印技術就是幫助人們將狂野的設計願景變為現實,但由於目前規模、時間和成本的限制,這一目標暫未能完全實現。 Airmesh項目中所用的方法不是3D打印整個結構,而是將3D打印的組件與標準元素無縫地結合在一起,否則會導致非常高的生產成本,現在它已經在快速組裝和一定的經濟範圍內,為自由形式設計鋪平了道路。

Digital design opens creativity to nearly endless geometric freedom, mass-customization, and optimized, ornamental, multifunctional architectural structures. In tandem, 3D Printing served as a promise to materialize wild design visions into built reality; yet an unfulfilled one due to size, time and cost constraints. AIRMESH approach, rather than 3D printing the entire structure which would result in very high costs of production, combines 3D printed components with standard elements in a seamless way. It sets path for full free-form designs, with a rapid assembly and in a more affordable range.

© Fabian Ong
© Fabian Ong

與鋼筋無縫融合的節點形式,賦予了結構一種連續性和流動感。展館的雙層透氣表層是一個緊繃在結構上的多孔漁網,其透明性在幫助微風透入的同時、也證明了這種清晰的結構可捕獲各種顏色的光,將未經任何過濾的外部風景框入立面開口作為展館內部的觀賞主景。

The form of the nodes blends seamlessly with the bars, giving the whole a sense of continuity and structural fluidity across its components. The two-layered breathable skin of the pavilion is a porous fishing net tensed towards the structure. Its transparency allows the breeze to pass and the structure to be seen yet evidences the form and captures the RGB light. The view frames serve as openings for the envelope, where the primary views are presented unfiltered.

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB

▼展館結構細節 Detail

▼場地平面圖 Site Plan

© AIRLAB

▼展館立面圖 Elevations

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB

▼展館平面圖 Floor Plan

© AIRLAB

▼展館結構細節圖 Details

▼展館結構連接構件模型圖 The hex keys

© AIRLAB
© AIRLAB

設計:AIRLAB(建築智能研究實驗室)@SUTD
項目負責人:Carlos Banon and Felix Raspall
首席研究員:Anna Toh Hui Ping
研究團隊:David Rosen, Vahid Hassani, Jenn Chong, Sourabh Maheshwary, Sihan Wang, Liu Chi, Huang Kunsheng, Luo Qihuan, Aurelia Chan, Cheong Yilei
顧問:TCP Engineers, PTL Consultants, WoodFix
面積:28.75平方米(框架邊界8.2 x 5.6 x 5.6)
體積:88.5立方米
項目地點:新加坡
海灣花園濱水亭
項目時間:2017年8月開始
竣工:2019年8月

Designed by AIRLAB ​(Architecture Intelligence Research Lab) @SUTD
Project Lead: Carlos Banon and Felix Raspall
Lead Researcher : Anna Toh Hui Ping
Research Team: David Rosen, Vahid Hassani, Jenn Chong, Sourabh Maheshwary, Sihan Wang, Liu Chi, Huang Kunsheng, Luo Qihuan, Aurelia Chan, Cheong Yilei
Consultants: TCP Engineers, PTL Consultants, WoodFix
Surface: 28.75 sqm (bounding box 8.2m x 5.6m x 4.8m)
Volume: 88.5 m3
Location: Bayfront Pavilion, Gardens by the Bay. Singapore
Project duration: Beginning in August, 2017
Completion in August 2019

更多 Read more about: AIRLAB

Categories: 艺术小品